Professional Competence in Nursing

The aim of this research is

  1. to assess and compare the level of competence development at the transition period in Finland and four other European countries;
  2. to explore individual, educational, organizational and value-based factors connected with the level of competence at the transition period, and to
  3. model factors contributing high level of competence and successful begin of transition period and the nurse-career.

Moreover, during this research project aim is

  1. to produce and evaluate instruments assessing competence and factors connected, both self-assessment and objective tests, and
  2. to establish a cohort for follow-up studies in future, responding to the need for longitudinal studies.

This research is started in 2016 with international cooperation. In this study, we are working in the European arena: we will conduct the data collection in Finland, Spain, Germany, Lithuania and in Ireland. All these countries are EU members, and we have the same Directive 2005/36/EC, Directive 2013/55/EU and the European Qualifications Framework (EC 2008) guiding nursing education. In all of these countries, nursing education is on bachelor-level (general nurse=180ECTS). PROCOMPnurse has gotten funding from Academy of Finland.


Nurse Competence Scale, NCS
The scale was develeopd in Finland by Riitta Meretoja and it is published in 2004. The scale assess nurses’ generic competence.

Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision Scale, CLES
The CLES Scale develeopd in Finland by Mikko Saarikoski and it is publlished in 2002. The scale assess nursing students’ experienced quality of the clinical learning environment and supervisioin in the clinical practicum.

Student-Patient relationship Scale, SPR
The SPR Scale was develeopd in Finland by Arja Suikkala and it is published in 2007. The scale assess therelationship between nursing students and patients and the factors associated with the type of this relationship.

Evaluation of Requirements of Nurse Teachers, ERNT
The scale was develeopd in Finland by Leena Salminen and it is published in 2000 and 2012. The scale assess nurse teachers’ competence.



Burke E, Lehwaldt D, Ní Chianáin L. 2018. Professional Competence in Nursing ‘PROCOMPNurse’ Study. Measuring Preceived Student Nurse Competence, and Factors Impacting on the Development of Nurse Competence Across Countries. The 22nd International Philosophy of Nursing Society (IPONS) Conference – Missed care, care left undone: Organisation ethics and the appropriate use of the nursing resource, 23.–25.8.2018, National University Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Salminen L, Koskinen S, Strandell-Laine C, Ayerle G, Richter C, Scott A, Lehwaldt D, Istomina-Fatkulina N, Rauckiene A, Fuster P, Cerezuela Torre M,Leino-Kilpi H. 2018. Professional competence in nursing – a European research project. FINE conference, 21.2.-23.22018. University of Valetta, Valetta, Malta. (Oral presentation)

Strandell-Laine C, Salminen L, Ayerle G.M, Richter C, Scott A.P, Lehwaldt D, Fatkulina N, Rauckiené-Michaelsson A, Fuster P, Cerezuela Torre M, Leino-Kilpi H. 2018. Professional competence in nursing, PROCOMPNurse – a European research project. CLES2018 Symposium, 24 – 25.9.2018, Chiéti, Italy. (Oral presentation)

Strandell-Laine C, Salminen L & Leino-Kilpi H. 2017. Professional competence in nursing – an international research project. ICN Congress 2017, 28.5 – 1.6.2017, Barcelona, Spain. (Poster presentation)

Other publications

Salminen L & Leino-Kilpi H. 2018. Sairaanhoitajien osattava yhä enemmän (Nurses have to be even more competent). Alio. Turun Sanomat. 114 (105), 2.

Salminen L & Leino-Kilpi H. 2018. Potilaat sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden opetuksessa (Patients in the nursing students’ education). Suomen Potilaslehti 40 (3), 5–6.

Salminen L & Leino-Kilpi H. 2018. Fokuksessa sairaanhoitajan osaaminen (Nurses competence in the focus). Pro Terveys 45 (4), 8–9.


Kick-off meeting 28 September 2017, Brussels, Belgium


Management Board Meeting 9 November 2018, Brussels, Belgium



University of Turku, Department of Nursing Science

Helena Leino-Kilpi
Professor, Head of the Department, nurse director (part-time)

Leena Salminen, Professor
Sanna Koskinen, PhD
​Camilla Strandell-Laine​, PhD
Pia Kukkonen, Doctoral Candidate
Satu Kajander-Unkuri, PhD

Minna Tuukkanen
Veera Sivula
Anne Maijala
Leena Koivusalo


Martin Luther Universität Hall-Wittenberg, Institute of Health and Nursing Science
Gertrud M. Auyerle, Dr. rer. medic.
Juliane Stubner, M.Sc., Doctoral Candidate
Christin Richter, M.Sc., Doctoral Candidate


University of Iceland, Faculty of Nursing, Landspítali University Hospital and University of Akureyri, School of Health Sciences
Herdís Sveinsdóttir, Professor and Dean
Brynja Ingadóttir, Assistant Professor

Landspitali University Hospital
Hrund Sch. Thorsteinsson, Department manager, Adjunct
Katrín Blöndal, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Academic Lektor

University of Akureyri, School of Health Sciences
Margrét Hrönn Svavarsdóttir, Associate professor


Dublin City University, School of Nursing and Human Sciences
Daniela Lehwaldt, Assistant Professor


Vilnius University, Institute of Health Sciences
Natalja Fatkulina​, Professor, Director of Institute of Health Sciences
Viktorija Kielate, Doctoral Candidate

Klaipeda University, Faculty of Health Sciences
Alona Rauckiene-Michaelsson, Associate professor, Director of Health Research and Innovation Science Centre
Indrė Brasaitė, PhD, Docent
Marija Truš, Doctoral Cadidate, lecturer


International University of Catalonia, Department of Nursing
Marian Cerezuela Torre, Professor
Pilar Fuster Linares, Professor


MNSc, Pia Kukkonen
MNSc, Mika Alastalo
MNSc. Anu-Marja Kaihlanen
MNSc, Yunsuk Jeon

Professor Elina Haavisto, Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Finland
Professor Riitta Meretoja, Director of nursing research and science, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa; Docent, Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku
Post-doc researcher Arja Suikkala,Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Finland
Docent Mikko SaarikoskiDepartment of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Finland
PhD Jouni Tuomi
Professor Kimmo Lehtonen
LicBA Leena Jokinen
MSci Eliisa Löyttynieimi, University of Turku, Departement of Clinical Medicine/Biostatistics

Professor Helena Leino-Kilpi (chair), University of Turku, Finland
Professor Leena Salminen, University of Turku, Finland
PhD, post doc-researcher Sanna Koskinen, University of Turku, Finland
PhD candidate Camilla Strandell-Laine (secretary), University of Turku, Finland
Dr. Gertrud M. Ayerle, Martin Luther Universität Hall-Wittenberg, Germany
Assistant Professor Daniela Lehwaldt, Dublin City University, Ireland
Professor Herdís Sveinsdotti’r, University of Iceland, Iceland
Professor Natalja Fatkulina, Vilnius University, Lithuania
Dr. Marian Cerezuela Torre, International University of Catalonia, Spain