Second Machine Age Knowledge Co-Creation Processes in Space and Time

Current and updated SMAK-website can be found at

The project SMAK analyses knowledge co-creation processes between humans, robots and artificial intelligence in Finland, USA, and Singapore. In the second machine age, we co-create knowledge with artefacts that learn. This challenges any approach to knowledge creation to re-ask: who knows, what is knowledge and how is knowledge co-created from ideas into justified results? The SMAK builds a novel and interdisciplinary spatio-temporal approach to empirically analyse knowledge co-creation processes in the second machine age. The case studies focus on early adopters: robotics university students, and developers of artificial intelligence and Internet of Things.

  • Funding: Academy of Finland
  • Period: 2018–2023
  • PI: Johanna Hautala