Baltic Rim Economies 5/2021

Special issue on maritime sector

Published on the 8th of December 2021

Reducing emissions in the maritime sector will bring challenges and opportunities for Finland

“Finland’s northern location, the Russian border and 1100 kilometers of shoreline on the Baltic Sea make us, in practice, an island nation within the European Union. Functioning maritime transport is vital for Finland’s economy and competitiveness, since 90 % of our exports and 80 % of imports are transported by sea. At the same time, currently around 98% of the fuels used in vessels are fossil fuels, which underscores the necessity of a green transformation in the sector.”

Elsi Katainen,
Member of European Parliament (the Centre Party of Finland, Renew Europe),
Renew Europe’s negotiator of FuelEU Maritime regulation in the Committee on Transport and Tourism

Emission free propulsion for ships

“The global shipping sector contributes to a large part of the transport work, but it also contributes to the total CO2 emissions by almost 3 %. With the existing plans for decarbonisation only around 20 % of the shipping will be fossil free in 2050 and increased future transport may even lead to an increase in emissions. There are also several other ship emissions to air that influences both human health and the environment and the Baltic Sea is also designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area, PSSA, by the IMO as well as being one of the “special areas” in the MARPOL convention, emission control areas, ECA.”

Karin Andersson,
Maritime Environmental Sciences, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg, Sweden

Focus and courage are needed for saving the Sea

“In 2007 the countries belonging to the Baltic Sea Marine Protection Commission HELCOM agreed to return the Sea in good ecological status by 2021.  Despite good intentions, the launch of the new HELCOM decade in October 2021 had to be started by admitting the failure in reaching the needed nutrient reductions, and the new time limit was set to 2030. It was a pity, as the climate change ridden Baltic Sea is suffocating in high nutrient loads which are also the main threat for its fragile biodiversity.”

Marjukka Porvari,
Director / Clean Baltic Sea projects,
John Nurminen Foundation,

The European Union supports sustainable and digital maritime processes

“The maritime industry in the Baltic Sea Region has experienced reforms in recent years. For example, digital development has taken real leaps forward and various parties are working together to develop operations and processes that are more sustainable for the business and the environment. Regulation has played a significant role in this development. New regulations and emission targets, set by the IMO and the EU, both demand and encourage organisations towards more environmentally-friendly maritime operations. At the same time, more and more national and EU funding programmes are supporting R&D projects with environmental targets without disregarding how to boost the regional economy.”

Elisa Aro,
Research Manager,
Pan-European Institute, University of Turku,

Baltic Rim Economies 5/2021 includes the following Expert articles

Elsi Katainen: Reducing emissions in the maritime sector will bring challenges and opportunities for Finland

Thomas L. Brewer: The Baltic Maritime Emission Control Area (ECA) – Precedent for a Mediterranean ECA?

Savitri Jetoo: OECD governance indicators for a resilient Baltic Sea Action Plan 2021

Lena Nerhagen: A tale of an island – on changing circumstances and the need for adaptive governance

Sakari Kuikka: Use of ecosystem models in marine governance

Laura Uusitalo: Marine monitoring in transition

Anders Berg & Johannes Betz: LISA: Linking Sea & Land – A Flagship process

Päivi Haikkola: International regulation for autonomous maritime

Nani Pajunen & Ona Vassallo: Carbon-neutral circular economy in the marine sector

Eemil Rauma: Can circular economy of mobility help Baltic Sea region countries achieve their CO2-reduction targets?

Vesa Marttinen: Data and circular economies in European short seas

Valerie de Liedekerke: Can the Baltic Region harbour a Sustainable Blue Economy?

Heli Haapasaari: Baltic Sea marine pollution response

Ignė Stalmokaitė, Fred Saunders,Johanna Johansson & Björn Hassler: Sustainability transformations – research in the Baltic and beyond

Eero Hokkanen: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport – a northern Baltic perspective

Elina Andersson: Finnish maritime industries and Baltic Sea area green transition

Karin Andersson: Emission free propulsion for ships

Tiina Tuurnala: Towards zero-emission through cooperation

Anita Mäkinen: Looking for a Silver Bullet to reduce GHG emissions from maritime transport – is there a one?

Jussi Mälkiä: Lessons learnt from greening of shipping

Elina Kari & Hermanni Backer Johnsen: Economic incentives for sustainable shipping?

Eva-Lotta Sundblad: Manage shipping in harmony with marine ecosystems

Ulla Tapaninen: Six steps to reach carbon-free shipping

Niina Kuittinen: Shipping remains a crucial airborne particle source

Selma Brynolf: Solutions for zero-emission shipping

Beatriz Garcia & Hector Gutierrez-Bocaz: Decarbonizing shipping: national action and the challenges ahead

Magnus Gustafsson & Henry Schwartz: The business opportunity of reducing emissions in shipping

Erik Ytreberg: Importance of including the marine perspective in assessments of ship emissions

Kirsten Å. Øystese: Can Norway’s electric ferries pave the way for zero-emission shipping?

Eunice Olaniyi: Impact of SECA regulations on clean shipping in the BSR

Pentti Kujala: Future cruise ships and the environmental challenges

Daniel Metzger & Orestis Schinas: The challenge of financing green shipping

Angela Kruth & Jens Wartmann: Green ammonia technologies for zero-emission shipping

Jonathan Lewis: Maritime sector needs zero-carbon fuels, not LNG

Eveliina Klemola: Options for low or zero carbon maritime fuels

Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi: Fuel choices for short sea shipping in the Baltic Sea

Kjell Larsson: Reducing discharges from chemical tankers

Olga Sarna: Shipwrecks: the ticking bombs at the bottom of the Baltic Sea

Axel Merkel: External costs of maritime transport in Sweden

Olena de Andrés González, Heikki Koivisto & Minna M. Keinänen-Toivola: Efficient maritime logistics in the Baltic Sea area

Oskari Lähdeaho: New reality and opportunities of Baltic Sea supply chains

Jarkko Toivola: Sustainable icenavigation in Northern Baltic Sea

Martin Ramacher, Markus Quante, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias & Jana Moldanova: Future shipping and air quality in the Baltic

Annaleena Mäkilä: Digitalisation alone is no longer enough: Ports are electrifying

Iven Krämer: OPS just one option to reduce emissions in ports

Tommi Inkinen: Baltic ports benefit from collaboration and planning in waste management

Marjukka Porvari: Focus and courage are needed for saving the Sea

Gunnar Prause: Culture for post-COVID recovery

Elisa Aro: The European Union supports sustainable and digital maritime processes

Thomas Doepel: Securing National Emergency Supply in a sustainable way

Tadeusz Szelangiewicz: Unmanned vessels – maritime transport in the 21st century

Céline Vaneeckhaute: Ship-generated nutrient discharges on the Baltic Sea

Nicole Wermuth: Large engines for sustainable shipping solutions

Alessandro Schönborn: Looking for pathways to decarbonise shipping

Paula Kankaanpää: Ecosystem based management in the core of science and environmental diplomacy in the Baltic Sea and the Arctic Ocean