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Health Care and Nursing Education

Health Care and Nursing Education

Research programme focuses on improving the quality of health care education and health care educator education and training. For the improvement, the programme aims to analyze, evaluate and develop the quality of learning outcomes in health care education, in the clinical learning environment and the competence of health care educators.

The specific goals of this research programme is to evaluate different learning outcomes in basic health care education; to develop instruments for the evaluation of the quality of learning outcomes; to improve the quality of health care education; to evaluate and develop the clinical learning environment; to evaluate and develop the competence of health care educators, and to maintain discussion about the quality of health care education.

Research is conducted in collaboration with national and international partners. National partners consists of different universities and universities of applied science, vocational institutions of social and health care and health care organizations. International partners consist of researchers and teachers in different universities.

RENE research group (Research in Nursing Education) is established to promote and strengthen the research in the field of health care education. The RENE research group started at 2012.

Heads of the Programme

Helena Leino-Kilpi Professorheleiki@utu.fi
Leena Salminen Professorleesalmi@utu.fi

Team members

Elina Haavisto, PhD, RN, Professor
Maija Hupli, PhD, RN, University Lecturer
Mikko Saarikoski, PhD, RN, Docent, publications
Asta Heikkilä, PhD, Post-doc researcher, publications
Sanna Koskinen, PhD, Post-doc researcher
Kirsi Talman, PhD, Post-doc researcher
Riitta-Liisa Lakanmaa, PhD, Post-doc researcher
Arja Suikkala, PhD, Post-doc researcher​
Satu Kajander-Unkuri, PhD, Post-doc researcher

Statistician
Jouko Katajisto, MSocSci
Elisa Löyttyniemi, MSocSci

Researchers or post-doc researchers
Asta Heikkilä, Evidence-based nursing- use of research evidence Abstract of Doctoral thesis
Sanna Koskinen, Learning with Older People Doctoral thesis
Riitta-Liisa Lakanmaa, Intensive care, Doctoral thesis
Arja Suikkala, Nursing student-patient relationship Doctoral thesis
Kirsi Talman, Student selection Doctoral thesis
Satu Kajander-Unkuri, Nursing competence Doctoral thesis
Camilla Strandell-Laine Doctoral thesis
Virpi Sulosaari Doctoral thesis

Current Doctoral candidates and their research topics

Mika Alastalo: Observation skills in intensive care unit
Mika Alhonkoski: 3D technology in nursing education
Anu-Marja Kaihlanen: Transition from a nursing student to registered nurse
Pia Kukkonen: Student attrition in nursing education
Pia Lahtinen: European health care educator education
Hanna Repo: Cultural competence of nursing students
Jenni Rinne. Social and health care educators’ Work wellbeing
Karoliina Tuomela: Interprofessional education
Jonna Vierula
Nina Glerean:
Iida Laakso: Learning Evidence-based practice

Current Master students (ongoing)
Minna Tuukkanen
Anne Maijala
Linda Hublin
Ilari Ernamo
Iina Ryhtä
Heini Kara
Sari Kaassalmi

There are many graduated master students in the programme, see Publications.

Education

Research in this field is made in close collaboration with the Programme for Nurse Educator, one main field of the masters’ education in the Department of Nursing Science. Nowadays interprofessional education is one of the main topics in the educator training and it is conducted both in health care organisations and educational institutions.

Every year, there is a public education day, the Day of Didactics, where also the results of the research in this field are presented to new students, educators and all interested.

The international intensive Programme, Empowering learning environments in nursing – Elene IP (10 ECTS) aims to bring together university students in different countries to ensure high quality health care educator education related to evidence-based teaching and outcomes concerning social media as a learning environment in health care education in multicultural European context.

Publication of the Elene IP: Salminen et al. 2015. Nurse teacher candidates learned to use social media during the international teacher training course. Nurse Education Today doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2015.08.026.

Publications

Recent reviews of health care education research (pdf)

Publications / Research reports (pdf)

Master theses (pdf)

Licentiate theses (pdf)

Doctoral theses

Kajander-Unkuri Satu. 2015. Nurse Competence of Graduating Nursing Students. Doctoral thesis.

Talman Kirsi. 2014. Hoitotyön koulutuksen opiskelijavalinnat. Seurantatutkimus kahden valintakoemenetelmän yhteydestä opiskelijoiden osaamiseen ja opiskelumotivaatioon. Student selection in nursing education – A follow-up study of two selection methods and their relations to the knowledge, skills and study motivation of nursing students (original in Finnish). Doctoral thesis.

Lankinen Iira. 2013. Päivystyshoitotyön osaaminen valmistuvien sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden arvioimana. The emergency nursing competence of graduating nursing students (original in Finnish). Doctoral thesis.

Laine Päivi. 2010. Verenpaineen mittaamisen opettaminen sairaanhoitaja- ja terveydenhoitajaopiskelijoille.Teaching the measurement of blood pressure for both nursing and public health nursing students (original in Finnish). Doctoral thesis.

Numminen Olivia. 2010. Nursing Ethics Education in Finland from the Perspective of Codes of Ethics. Doctoral thesis.

Brunou Sinikka. 2009. Sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden ohjattujen käytännön harjoittelujen aikana ilmenneet eettiset ongelmat. Ethical problems occurring during the practical training period of Finnish nursing students (original in Finnish). Doctoral thesis.

Suikkala Arja. 2008. Nursing student-patient relationships and associated factors. Doctoral thesis.

Grandell-Niemi Heidi. 2005. The Medication Calculation Skills of Nursing Students and Nurses – Developing a Medication Calculation Skills Test.

Heikkilä Asta. 2005. Ammattikorkeakoulusta valmistuvien hoitotyön opiskelijoiden tutkitun tiedon käyttö.Research knowledge utilisation of polytechnic nursing students on graduation (original in Finnish).

von Schantz Marjale. 2005. Sairaalainfektioiden torjunta hoitotyön toimintona; hoitotyön opiskelijoiden, hoitotyöntekijöiden sekä potilaiden tiedot ja käsitykset.
Infection control as a nursing intervention – Nurse students’, nurses’ and patients’ knowledge and perceptions (original Finnish).

Salmela Marjo. 2004. Sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden hoitamisen taidot ja niiden opetus ammattikorkeakoulussa: Opiskelijoiden, opettajien ja ohjaajien arviot. The nursing skills of nurse students and the teaching of these skills at polytechnic – students’, teachers’ and mentors’ ratings (original Finnish).

Elomaa Leena. 2003. Research evidence implementation and its requirements in nursing education.

Räisänen Anu. 2002. Hoitotyöntekijöiksi valmistuvien osaaminen, vertailututkimus opistoasteelta ja ammattikorkeakouluista valmistuvien hoitotyöntekijöiden hoitotyön toimintojen hallinnasta sekä opetuksen ja opiskelun painotuksista. Level of know-how of persons graduating nurses. A comparison study on nurses graduating from post-secondary institutions and polytechnics regarding their command on the functions involved in care work and the areas of emphasis in instruction and study (original Finnish).

Saarikoski Mikko. 2002. Clinical learning environment and supervision. Development and validation of the CLES evaluation scale. Doctoral thesis.

Juvonen Soile. 2001. Hoitotyön päätöksenteko; päätöksenteon opetus ja sairaanhoitaja- ja terveydenhoitajaopiskelijoiden päätöksenteko. Teaching of clinical decision making in nursing education and decision making of nursing students (original in Finnish).

Salminen Leena. 2000. Hoitotyön opettajan muotokuva – opettajaan kohdistuvat vaatimukset ja niiden arviointi. Portrait of Nurse Teacher – Requirements for Teachers Evaluated (original in Finnish).

Hupli Maija. 1996. Sairaanhoitajan ja sairaanhoitajaopiskelijan hoitotyön päätöksenteko kolmella eri menetelmällä tutkittuna. Decision-making by nurses and student nurses: a comparison based on three sources of information (original in Finnish).

Leino-Kilpi Helena.1990. Good nursing care – On what basis?

Doctoral theses can be bought from University of Turku Library

Instruments

INSTRUMENTS DEVELOPED IN THE PROGRAMME:

The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher Scale, CLES+T
The original version, Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision Scale (CLES),  was published in 2002 by Mikko Saarikoski. The more extensive version of the Scale, CLES+T Scale (2008), includes also the sub-dimension of the role of the nurse teacher in the clinical practice. The CLES scales are translated altogether into 30 languages and have been used in over 50 countries by approx. 100 researchers.

Evaluation of Requirements of Nurse Teachers Scale, ERNT
The ERNT Scale was published in 2000 by Leena Salminen and it is translated altogether into five languagaes (English, German, Norwegian, Swedish, Russian).

Student-Patient Relationship Scales, SPR
The SPR Scale was published in 2007 by Arja Suikkala. The scale examines the
relationship between nursing students and patients and the factors associated with the type of this relationship. The SPR Scale is translated into English.

Competence in Research Utilization Scale, CompRU
The CompRU Scale was published in 2005 by Asta Heikkilä. The scale examines the research utilization competence in nursing. The CompRU Scale is translated into English, Polish and Slovenien.

Request of using the Scales:

The scales are free to use after formal permission to use.

CLES+T: please contact Doctoral candidate Camilla Strandell-Laine, castla@utu.fi
ERNT: please contact docent Leena Salminen, leesalmi@utu.fi
SPR: please contact PhD, post-doc researcher Arja Suikkala, arja.suikkala@diak.fi
CompRU, please contact, PhD, post-doc researcher Asta Heikkilä, asta.heikkila@seamk.fi

Projects

Clinical Learning Environment CLES

Research in the field of clinical learning environment started in early 2002, mainly by creating an instrument for evaluating the quality of clinical learning environment, Clinical Learning Environment Scale CLES, in the doctoral thesis of docent Mikko Saarikoski. Since that, docent Saarikoski has continued to study the quality of learning environment. The more extensive version of the CLES+T Scale (2008) with 39 items, includes also the sub-dimension of the role of the nurse teacher. The work has been done in the University of Turku in a long-lasting cooperation with Professor Helena Leino-Kilpi. The CLES scales are translated altogether into 33 languages and have been used in over 55 countries by over 120 reserachers since 2003.

Published doctoral dissertations

  • Mikko Saarikoski. 2002. Clinical learning environment and supervision. Development and validation of the CLES evaluation scale, Doctoral thesis
  • Satu Kajander-Unkuri. 2015. Nurse Competence of Graduating Nursing Students, Doctoral thesis

National research group

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS
Mikko Saarikoski, PhD, RN, Docent
Helena Leino-Kilpi, PhD, RN, FEANS, Professor and chair, Nurse Director, Turku University Hospital
helena.leino-kilpi@utu.fi
Camilla Strandell-Laine, MNSc, RN, Doctoral candidate
camilla.strandell-laine@utu.fi

There is a national CLES-network for health care organizations using the CLES Scale. The network holds national meetings once a year. The leader of the CLES-network is PhD, RN, Docent Riitta Meretoja.

International CLES researcher network

The CLES researcher network has met every second year since 2008 in CLES Symposiums. The main goal of the Symposium is to offer participants a possibility to share research ideas of clinical learning environment and experiences with other researches over the world. The leader of the international CLES reserach network is MNSc, Doctoral candidate Camilla Strandell-Laine.
The 10th CLES2018 Symposium was held in Chieti, Italy, 24-25th September 2018 in cooperation with the “IPASVI” Nursing Board of Chieti and the Master in Nursing and Midwifery of Chieti University.

The Competence of Health Care Educators

This research area started in early 1990 by establishing an evaluative instrument for evaluating the competence of health care educators, in the doctoral thesis of docent Leena Salminen in 2000: Hoitotyön opettajan muotokuva; Portrait of nurse teachers – requirements for teachers evaluated, see the abstract. Since that, the instrument has been used and developed for evaluate the competence and work of health care educators.

The research is carried out in co-operation with all five Finnish universities, where nursing science is taught and where health care educators are educated. Members of the national research group:

Published doctoral dissertations

Leena Salminen. 2000. Hoitotyön opettajan muotokuva; Portrait of nurse teachers – requirements for teachers evaluated.

Publications of the research project

CURRENT PhD STUDENT

Pia Lahtinen: European health care educator education

National research group

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
Leena Salminen, PhD, RN, PHN, Professor, University Lecturer
leena.kaarina.salminen@utu.fi

The research is carried out in co-operation with all five Finnish universities, where nursing science is taught and where health care educators are educated.
Members of the national research group:

  • University of Turku: Leena Salminen, Professor; Helena Leino-Kilpi, Professor
  • University of Kuopio: Terhi Saaranen, Docent
  • University of Oulu: Maria Kääriäinen, Professor; Marjorita Sirmunen, Docent; Kristina Mikkonen, PhD
  • University of Tampere: Meeri Koivula, Docent
  • Åbo Akademi University: Camilla Koskinen, Docent
  • University of Jyväskylä: Tuulikki Sjögren, PhD

Student-Patient Relationship

Health care delivery founded on the principles of patient-centredness is widely held as a core aim of healthcare providers around the world. Equally, nursing education has to keep pace with the challenges that the patient–centred approach poses in order to guarantee the knowledge and skills new graduates need in rapidly evolving health care and changing scope of clinical practice. Patients as experts of their own situation offer students valuable perspectives with which to enrich and facilitate students’ clinical learning and assessment. Thus, the involvement of patients should be established across the educational continuum of nursing education.

The starting point of the research in the field student-patient relationship was laid in doctoral thesis of Arja Suikkala. Currently, a national multi-center study is carried out in nursing students’ clinical placements at different parts of Finland with an aim to describe and evaluate first, second and graduating year nursing students’ client-centredness skills and associated factors with these skills at one time point (cross sectional) and over a period of time (longitudinal). In addition, the aim is to evaluate and develop the suitability of Student-Patient Relationship-Scale (©Suikkala) in assessing the performance of students’ client-centredness skills. The data is collected from nursing students and patients by the Student-Patient Relationship Scales (©Suikkala) during clinical placement of students. In addition, as a background variable, students are asked to assess their competence by using the Nurse Competence Scale ©Meretoja.

Scholars and students of Nursing Science with similar research interests are warmly welcome to make contact to discuss possible collaboration opportunities.

Published doctoral dissertations:
Suikkala, A. 2007. Nursing student-patient relationship and associated factors. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis D 788. Turku.

Research team

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher Arja Suikkala
arja.suikkala@utu.fi
Department of Nursing Science
University of Turku

Senior researchers

Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku

  • PhD, Professor Helena Leino-Kilpi
    helena.leino-kilpi@utu.fi
  • PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher Sanna Koskinen
    smtkos@utu.fi
  • PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher Satu Kajander-Unkuri
    satu.kajander@utu.fi

Development Manager at Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa

  • PhD, Docent, Riitta Meretoja
    riitta.meretoja@hus.fi

 

Competence in Research Utilization

​Research in this field started in 2005, mainly by creating an instrument CompRU for evaluating the Competence in Research Utilization by graduating nursing students, in the doctoral thesis of Asta Heikkilä.

The purpose of this research is to evaluate and to compare in five European countries

the competence in research utilization of the nursing students on the completion of their nursing education,
the competence in research utilization of the nurses, who work in the hospitals, and
the factors related to the research utilization competence.
The objective of the study is to produce information, which can be used to further develop the teaching contents and teaching methods of the basic education, further training and supplementary education in nursing.

The objective is likewise to validate and to develop the web based CompRU instrument which could be systematically used to estimate the qualifications in research utilization in nursing education and in practical working life in Finland and internationally.

In this study, we are working in the European arena: we will conduct the data collection in Finland, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden in cooperation with international partners.

Language versions of the CompRU instrument
Finnish
English
Polish
Slovenian
Published doctoral dissertations
Asta Heikkilä: Ammattikorkeakoulusta valmistuvien hoitotyön opiskelijoiden tutkitun tiedon käyttö [Research knowledge utilisation of polytechnic nursing students on graduation]. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis, sarja C, osa 237. Turku: Painosalama Oy. (In Finnish, with English abstract)

National research group

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
Asta Heikkilä, PhD, RN
Post-doctoral researcher
Principal Lecturer, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences
asta.heikkila@seamk.fi

Senior researchers

Helena Leino-Kilpi, PhD, RN, FEANS
Professor and chair
Chair of the Finnish National Doctoral Network in Nursing Science
Nurse Director, Turku University Hospital
helena.leino-kilpi@utu.fi

Maija Hupli, PhD, RN
University Lecturer
mahu@utu.fi

Jouko Katajisto, MSc
Lecturer, Department of Mathematics and Statistics
jouko.katajisto@utu.fi

Learning with Older People

© Sanna Koskinen

The foundation of this research project was laid in the doctoral thesis (2016) of the PI Sanna Koskinen. The starting points of this research project are a novel, evidence-based educational programme Learning with Older People Programme (LOPP) and Nursing Students’ Interest in Nursing Older People Scale (SINOPS) developed and tested in the doctoral thesis. In this research project, it is hypothesized that the involvement of older people in nursing students’ learning increases their understanding of and interest in working in older people nursing (OPN).

Nursing students are part of the future healthcare workforce; thus, being aware of their career intentions and interest in working in OPN give valuable insights to nursing education and practice. Valid and reliable instruments are needed to measure these aspects. New partnerships between older people and nursing education are also needed to meet the workforce demands in OPN due to ageing population, to strengthen professional nursing and to secure the quality of patient care for older people.

Currently, this research project consists of two parts. In the first part, new educational partnership is developed between older people in institutional care and nursing education. This study is financed by the Finnish Cultural Foundation (2016). In the second part, a shorter version of the Students’ Interest in Nursing Older People (SINOPS) instrument is developed and validated for the national and international use.

The Bachelor and Master students of Nursing Science, if you are interested in conducting your thesis related to these topics, please feel free to contact PI Sanna Koskinen smtkos@utu.fi for the exchange of thoughts about the tentative topic and supervision. Similarly, national and international scholars with similar research interests, you are welcome to make contact to discuss a possible collaboration opportunity.

Research team

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher Sanna Koskinen
smtkos@utu.fi
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku

​Senior researchers

PhD, Professor Helena Leino-Kilpi
helena.leino-kilpi@utu.fi
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku

PhD, Docent, University Lecturer Leena Salminen
leesalmi@utu.fi
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku

PhD, Principal Lecturer Arja Suikkala
arja.suikkala@utu.fi
Nursing and Health Promotion, Diaconia University of Applied Sciences

Competence of nursing students in Europe, COMPEUnurse

​The study focuses on competence of nursing students at the point of graduation and in early years of practice in Europe. This post doc study is continuation of PhD study (Kajander-Unkuri 2015), where competence of graduating nursing students with related factors was evaluated in Finland as an outcome of nurse education. The study is an independent part of the project PROCOMPnurse (principal investigator professor Helena Leino-Kilpi, PhD) in University of Turku, Department of Nursing Science

This study will produce new knowledge about the competence during transition period from nurse education to early years of practice in Europe. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nurse competence of GNSs at the point of graduation and competence of NGNs in early years of practice in Europe and to identify factors related to nurse competence.

This study has started in 2017. There are several partners from Europe, where we are collecting the data (Czech Republic, Greece, Finland, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain). In all these countries nurse education is guided by EU Directives (2005/36/EC and 2013/55/EU) and its competence requirements.

Head of the Programme

Satu Kajander-Unkuri
Post doc researcher
sahaka@utu.fi

Research team

​Professor Helena Leino-Kilpi
PhD, post-doc researcher Satu Kajander-Unkuri
Docent Riitta Meretoja
Docent Mikko Saarikoski
Docent Leena Salminen
Professor Riitta Suhonen
PhD Liisa Kuokkanen
PhD candidate Camilla Strandell-Laine
MNSc-student Linda Hublin
MNSc-student Johanna Simon-Bellamy

PhD Renata Zelenikova (Czech Republic)
PhD Stefanos Mantzoukas (Greece)
PhD candidate Alvisa Palese (Italy: Udine)
PhD Anna Brugnolli (Italy: Verona)
PhD Marilia dos Santos Rua (Portugal: Aveiro)
PhD Célia Simão de Oliveira (Portugal: Lisbon)
PhD Jana Nemcová (Slovakia)
PhD Sabina Ličen (Slovenia)
PhD Laura Visiers Jiménez (Spain: Madrid)

RENE

RENE2019-Symposium

Meetings

The RENE research group meets systematically 1-2 times / term.

Next RENE Symposium will be organized by University of Turku in March 2018 in Helsinki.

PURPOSE

In 2012 the RENE research group (Research in Nursing Education at the University of Turku) was set up in order to promote research in the field of health care education.

GOALS

  • promote research in the field of health care education and ensure its continuity and high quality;
  • assess and identify research needs;
  • carry out research and implement research results in a systematic manner in cooperation with polytechnics, other parties in the field of health care education and health service organisations;
  • bring together researchers in the field of health care education;
    support the career development of researchers in the field of health care education;
  • act as an expert forum in educational research.

The RENE research group comprises Bachelor’s degree students, Doctoral candidates, post-doc researchers conducting health care education research at the Department of Nursing Science as well as teachers and professors working at the department.