Project phases

Phase I  2002 – 2005 ICProject National Hospital Patient Study

Purpose is to test the Individualised Care Model and to examine the factors that are associated with individualised care.
Individualised care is conceptualised in terms of 1) patients’ views on how individuality is supported through specific nursing activities and 2) in terms of perceptions of individuality in patients’ own care
Factors involved in both dimensions include

  1. patient characteristics specific to the clinical situation caused by the hospitalisation
  2. the patient’s personal life situation and
  3. his/her decisional control over care

Suhonen R. 2002. Individualised care from the surgical patient’s point of view. Developing and testing a model. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis D 523, Painosalama Turku.
Cross-sectional survey with questionnaires
Statistical analysis
Hospitalised patients discharged home from surgical, internal medical and gynaecological wards (n = 861)

Phase II  2004 – 2007 ICProject International Hospital Patient Study


  • to describe and compare individualised care from the patients’ point of view in Finland, Greece, Sweden, UK and the USA
  • to validate the Swedish, Greek, English and the American English versions of the Individualised Care Scale

Cross-sectional survey with structured questionnaires

  • Individualised Care Scales ICS
  • EuroQol 5D
  • Schmidt Perception of Nursing Care Survey SPNCS
  • Possible additional instruments for national purposes

Statistical analysis
Orthopaedic and trauma patients discharging home from hospitals
(n = 1126): Finland n=425, Greace n=315, Sweden n=218, UK n=135, USA n=33

Phase III: 2007-2008 ICProject National Nurse Study – Infividualised care from the nurses’ point of view – a comparative national study


  • to generate the concept of individualised care from the nurses’ point of view – a comparative national study.
  • to adapt and validate the first part of the ICS instrument for the evaluation of individualised nursing interventions from the nurses’ point of view
  • to examine factors that are associated with nurses’ perceptions of individualised care
  • to compare nurses’ perceptions of individualised care in different health care settings

Cross-sectional survey with structured questionnaires

  • ICS-Nurse
  • RPPE Revised Professional Practise Enviroment

Statistical analysis
Nurses from different clinical settings
4a. n=546 (response rate 59 %); university hospital, 2 regional hospitals, 4 health centres, 2 psychiatric hospitals
Nurses from 3 hospitals
4b. n = 207 (response rate 58 %)

Phase IV: 2007-2010 ICProject International Nurse Study – Individualised care from the nurses’ point of view – a comparative international research


  • to describe and compare individualised care from the nurses’ point of view in different countries
  • to pilot and validate the UK English, US English, Swedish, Turkish, Norwegian, Greek and Portuguese versions of the ICS-Nurse Instrument

Questionnaire survey
The ICS Nurse -instrument was validated for internatiol use in different cultural settings.
The data were collected in spring 2009 (n = 750, 150/country).
The analysis was based on statistical methods.
Orthopaedic and trauma patients discharging home from hospitals(n = 1126): Cyprus n=150 (response rate 88%), Finland n=233 (80%), Greece n=147 (82%), Portugal n=150 (88%), Turkey n=156 (89%), Sweden n=180 (74%), and Kansas, USA n=150 (35%).

ICProject International Cancer Patient Study (Part II: 2011-2013)

Cancer patients’ perceptions of individualised care and factors related in six countries as a part of
FINLAND: Riitta Suhonen*,  RN, PhD, Professor Principal Investigator, Helena Leino-Kilpi, RN, PhD, Professor, Minna Stolt, MNSc, PhDc, & Jouko Katajisto, MSocSci, Statistician, University of Turku.
USA: Laurel E. Radwin*, RN, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Health Services Researcher at Independent Consultant, Boston, Boston, MA
CYPRUS: Andreas Charalambous* RN, PhD, Lecturer, Cyprus Technology University, Department of Nursing, Limassol.
GREECE: Elisabet Patiraki*, RN, PhD, Associate Professor & Chryssoula Lemonidou, RN, PhD, Professor, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Nursing, Athens.
SWEDEN: Ewa Idvall*, RN, PhD, Professor, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University and Skåne University Hospital, Malmö & Agneta Berg, RN, PhD, Associate professor, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad.
ENGLAND, UK: Lucy Land*, RN, DPSN, BSc, PGCE, Reader in Nursing, Birmingham City University, Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Birmingham.


to examine the relationships between hospitalised cancer patient characteristics (age, education, etc.), individualised care and patient-centered nursing care, and trust in nurses in six countries (Cyprus, Greece, Finland, Sweden , England UK and USA)
Question: For a sample of hospitalised cancer patients, what are the associations between levels of individualized nursing care, patient-centered nursing care and trust in nurses.


Questionnaire survey: Individualised Care Scale (Suhonen et al. 2004, 2007c, 2010a,b), the Oncology Patients’ Perceptions of the Quality of Nursing Care Scale (OPPQNCS; Radwin et al. 2003), Trust in Nurses Scale (Radwin & Carbal 2010) and EuroQol 5D (EurpQol Group 1990, Szende et al. 2007).


Cross-cultural comparative data will be collected from 150 patients (inpatients with a cancer diagnosis) in each country (N = 900) in September-December 2012.