List of peer-reviewed publications and study reports etc. of the research team, related to the research topics. Most publications are available online (e.g. ResearchGate). Some articles and reports are also stored in the Open Access archives of the University of Turku. Publications may be inquired directly from the research team. 

Peer-reviewed publications

  1. Mäkinen, K., Rajasilta, M., Ruuskanen, S., Karpela, T., Lauerma, A., Sahlsten, J. 2023. Effects of incubation temperature and maternal phenotype on Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) eggs and larvae: An experimental study. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Accepted. Doi: 10.1139/cjfas-2023-0032.
  2. Sahlstén, J., Rajasilta, M., Mäkinen, K., Hänninen, J. 2023. The prevalence of Corynosoma parasite worms in the Baltic herring and the great cormorants in the northern Baltic Sea, Finland. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. Accepted. Doi:
  3. Mäkinen, K., Rajasilta, M., Mäkilä, E., Jokinen, S., Hänninen, J. (2022) Varying frequency of vateritic otoliths in the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras. Journal of Fish Biology 101(3): 714-744. Doi: 10.1111/jfb.15127.
  4. Rajasilta, M., Mäkinen, K., Ruuskanen, S. Hänninen, J., Laine, P. (2021) Long-term data reveal the associations of the egg quality with abiotic factors and female traits in the Baltic herring under variable environmental conditions. Frontiers in Marine Science; Marine Fisheries, Aquaculture and Living Resources. Doi:
  5. Hänninen, J., Mäkinen, K., Rajasilta, M. & Vuorinen, I. (2020). Baltic Sea river runoff and the adjacent North Sea silica concentrations . Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (249), 107110. Doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2020.107110.
  6. Rajasilta, M., Hänninen, J., Laaksonen, L., Laine, P., Suomela, J. P., Vuorinen, I., & Mäkinen, K. (2018). Influence of environmental conditions, population density, and prey type on the lipid content in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from the northern Baltic Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, (999), 1-10.
  7. Mäkinen, K., Elfving, M., Hänninen, J., Laaksonen, L., Rajasilta, M., Vuorinen, I., & Suomela, J. P. (2017). Fatty acid composition and lipid content in the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus during summer in the southern Bothnian Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 71(1), 11.
  8. Mäkinen K, Vuorinen I, Hänninen J (2017) Climate-induced hydrography change favors small-bodied zooplankton in a coastal ecosystem. Hydrobiologia. Doi: 10.1007/s10750-016-3046-6.
  9. Rajasilta, M., Elfving, M., Hänninen, J., Laine, P., Vuorinen, I., & Paranko, J. (2016). Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea. Ambio, 45(2), 205-214.
  10. Hänninen, J., Vuorinen, I., Rajasilta, M., Reid, P.C. (2015) Response of the Baltic and North Seas to River Runoff from the Baltic Watershed–Physical and Biological changes. Progress in Oceanography 138:91-104.
  11.  Vuorinen, I., Hänninen, J., Rajasilta, M., Laine, P., Eklund, J., Montesino-Pouzols, F., … & Dippner, J. W. (2015). Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas–implications for environmental monitoring. Ecological indicators, 50, 196-205.
  12.  Rajasilta, M., Eklund, J., Hänninen, J., Vuorinen, I., & Laine, P. (2015). Female Baltic herring Clupea harengus allocate resources from growth to reproduction in poor feeding conditions. Journal of Fish Biology, 86(2), 575-591.
  13. Rajasilta, M., Hänninen, J., & Vuorinen, I. (2014). Decreasing salinity improves the feeding conditions of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) during spring in the Bothnian Sea, northern Baltic. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71(5), 1148-1152.
  14. Rajasilta, M., Laine, P., & Paranko, J. 2010. Current growth, fat reserves and somatic condition of juvenile Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) reared in different salinities. Helgoland marine research, 65(1), 59.
  15. Rajasilta, M., Laine, P. & Eklund, J. 2006. Mortality of herring eggs on different algal substrates (Furcellaria spp. and Cladophora spp.) – an experimental study. Hydrobiologia 554: 127-130. DOI 10.1007/s10750-005-1012-9.
  16. Hakala, T., Viitasalo, M., Rita, H., Aro, E., Flinkman, J. & Vuorinen, I. 2003. Temporal and spatial variation in the growth rates of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L.) larvae during summer. Marine Biology 142: 25–33.
  17. Peltonen, H., Raitaniemi, J., Parmanne, R., Eklund, J., Nyberg, K., & Halling, F. (2002). Age determination of Baltic herring from whole otoliths and from neutral red stained otolith cross sections. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59(2), 323-332.
  18. Rajasilta, M. , P. Laine & J. Hänninen. 2001. Ovarian weight of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in relation to spawning time in the Archipelago Sea, Northern Baltic. – ICES J.Mar.Sci. 58: 106-113.
  19. Kääriä. J., Aneer, G., Eklund, J., Jönsson, N., Naarminen, M. & Rajasilta, M. 2001. A tagging experiment on spring-spawning Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in southwestern Finland in 1990-1998. pp 599-609 In: Herring: Expectations for a new millennium. (Eds. F.Funk, J. Blackburn, D. Hay, A. J. Paul, R. Stephenson, R. Toresen & D. Witherell). University of Alaska Sea Grant, 800 pp.
  20. Eklund, J., Rajasilta, M. & Laine, P. 2001. Baltic herring growth pattern in relation to spawning time. – pp 155-169 In: Herring: Expectations for a new millennium. (Eds. F.Funk, J. Blackburn, D. Hay, A. J. Paul, R. Stephenson, R. Toresen & D. Witherell). University of Alaska Sea Grant, 800 pp.
  21. Eklund, J., Parmanne, R., & Aneer, G. (2000). Between-reader variation in herring otolith ages and effects on estimated population parameters. Fish. Res., 46(1-3), 147-154.
  22. Laine, P. 1999. Paternal effects on the hatching success of Baltic herring eggs. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 56 (Suppl.): 142-146.
  23. Laine, P. & Rajasilta, M. 1999. The hatching success of Baltic herring eggs and its relation to female condition. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 237: 61-73.
  24.  Laine, P., Eklund, J. & Soikkeli, M. 1998. Reproduction of Baltic herring after dissimilar growth and overwintering seasons. Ophelia 48: 155–165.
  25. Laine, P. & Rajasilta, M. 1998. Changes in the reproductive properties of Baltic herring females during the spawning season. – Fisheries Research 36: 67-73.
  26. Griffin, F.J., Pillai, M. C., Vines, C. A., Kääriä, J., Hibbard-Robbins, T., Yanagimachi, R. & Cherr, G. N. 1998. Effects of salinity on sperm motility, fertilization, and development in the Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi. Biol. Bull. 194: 25-35.
  27.  Kääriä, J., Rajasilta, M., Kurkilahti, M. & Soikkeli, M. 1997. Spawning bed selection by the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in the Archipelago Sea of SW Finland. – ICES J. mar. Sci. 54: 917-923.
  28. Rajasilta, M., Paranko, J. & Laine, P. 1997. Reproductive characteristics of the male herring in the northern Baltic Sea. – J. Fish. Biol. 51: 978-988.
  29.  Rajasilta, M., Eklund, J. Hänninen, J., Kurkilahti, M., Kääriä, J. Rannikko, P. & Soikkeli, M. 1993. Spawning of herring (Clupea harengus membras L.) in the Archipelago Sea. – ICES J. mar. Sci. 50: 233-246.
  30. Rajasilta, M. 1992. Relationship between food, fat, sexual maturation and spawning time of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in the Archipelago Sea. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 644-654.
  31. Rajasilta, M., Eklund, J., Kääriä, J. & Ranta-aho, K. 1989. The deposition and mortality of the eggs of the Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras L., on different substrates in the south-west archipelago of Finland. – J. Fish. Biol. 34: 417-427.
  32. Kääriä, J, Eklund, J., Hallikainen, S., Kääriä, R., Rajasilta, M., Ranta-aho, K. & Soikkeli, M. 1988. Effects of coastal eutrophication on the spawning grounds of the Baltic herring in the SW Archipelago of Finland. Kieler Meeresforsch. Sonderh. 6: 348–356.
  33. Rajasilta, M., Kääriä, J., Eklund, J. & Ranta-aho, K. 1986. Reproduction of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L.) in the sea area of Turku, SW Finland. Ophelia (4): 339–343
  34. Rajasilta, M., & Vuorinen, I. (1983). A field study of prey selection in planktivorous fish larvaeOecologia, 65-68.
  35. Vuorinen, I., Rajasilta, M. & Salo, J. Selective predation and habitat shift in a copepod species — support for the predation hypothesisOecologia 59, 62–64 (1983).


  • Lammi, Laura. 2023. Massiaisten (Mysida) ekologiset ominaisuudet, vertikaali-vaellus ja kokovaihtelu vesipatsaassa Saaristomerellä. University of Turku. Bachelor’s thesis.
  • Miinala, Saara. 2023. Jodipitoisuuksien vaihtelu Saaristomeren rakkohauruissa (Fucus vesiculosus). University of Turku. Bachelor’s thesis.
  • Sahlsten, Johannes. 2022. Prevalence and molecular identification of acanthocephalan parasites (Corynosoma spp.) in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) and great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). University of Turku, Turku. Master’s thesis.
  • Grönberg, Carolina. 2022. Faktorer som påverkar fertiliteten hos strömmingen (Clupea harengus membras) i Östersjön. Åbo Akademi, Turku. Bachelor’s thesis.
  • Mäkinen, Katja. 2019. Climate-induced Variability in Northern Baltic Sea Zooplankton – Assessing Driving Forces and Effects on Higher Trophic Levels. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Ser 358. University of Turku, Turku. PhD dissertation.
  • Sahlsten, Johannes. 2019. Corynosoma-suvun väkäkärsämatojen esiintyminen Saaristomeren ja Selkämeren silakoissa.  University of Turku, Turku. Bachelor’s thesis.
  • Elfving, Mikael. 2017. Long term changes in sex ratio and reproductive effort in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in the south-western archipelago of Finland. University of Turku, Turku. Master’s thesis.
  • Laaksonen, Lea. 2014 Itämeren makeutumisen vaikutus silakan ja silakan ravinnon rasvahappokoostumukseen. Opinnäytetyö (AMK). Bio- ja elintarviketekniikka. Biotekniikka.
  • Laine, Päivi. 2003. Regulation of reproduction in Baltic herring – individual effort meets the environment. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Ser AII TOM 166. University of Turku, Turku. PhD dissertation.
  • Kääriä, Juha. 1999. Reproduction of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L.): Factors affecting the selection of spawning beds in the Archipelago Sea, in SW Finland. University of Turku, Turku. PhD dissertation.
  • Rannikko, Petri. 1998. Pyyntiajan ja -paikan merkitys silakan ominaisuuksien vaihtelussa
    Airiston alueella = The influence of catching site and time on the properties of Baltic herring in the Airisto area. University of Turku, Turku. Master’s thesis.
  • Sorakunnas, Esko. 1996. Silakanpoikasten (Clupea Harengus Membras L.) esiintyminen
    litoraalissa Pohjois-Airistolla = Prevalence of Baltic herring larvae in the littoral zone in the
    SW Finland, northern Baltic Sea. University of Turku, Turku. Master’s thesis.
  • Rajasilta, Marjut. 1992. Timing of spawning in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland: regulatory mechanisms and consequences for offspring production. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis. Ser. A.II. 81. University of Turku, Turku. PhD dissertation.
  • Laine, Päivi. 1991. Lisääntymisajankohdan, naaraan koon ja kunnon vaikutus silakan
    (Clupea herengus membras L.) mätimunien määrään ja laatuun. University of Turku, Turku. Master’s thesis.
  • Kääriä, Juha. 1990. Silakan (Clupea harengus membras L.) kutuparvien rakenteesta,
    lisääntymisen ajoittumisesta ja intensiteetistä Turun edustan merialueella. University of Turku, Turku. Master’s thesis.

Research and project reports (selected examples)

Other publications (selected examples)

  • Marjut Rajasilta & Katja Mäkinen: “Silakkakantojen säilyminen elinvoimaisena riippuu ennen muuta lisääntymisen onnistumisesta” (Turun sanomat, Alio, 31.10.2023) (In Finnish).
  • Katja Mäkinen (2021): “Ympäristöseurannat avain Itämeren tulevaisuuden ymmärtämiseen ja suojeluun” Centrum Balticum’s Pulloposti column-series 6.5.2021 (in Finnish).
  • Katja Mäkinen (2021): Iodine in the Baltic Sea – a new factor behind a changing sea? (Sakari Alhopuro Foundation’s blog 7.1.2021.)
  • Jari Hänninen, Katja Mäkinen & Marjut Rajasilta (2020): Ilmaston muuttuessa meriekosysteemien keskinäinen vuorovaikutus Euroopassa muuttuu (Turun Sanomat alio 30.11.2020) (In Finnish)
  • Marjut Rajasilta, Jari Hänninen & Katja Mäkinen (2019): “Silakka kertoo muutoksesta” Suomen kalastuslehti 2/2019. (In Finnish).
  • ​Katja Mäkinen, Marjut Rajasilta (2019): “Silakassa havaittu loismatoja” Suomen kalastuslehti 2/2019. (In Finnish).
  • Rajasilta, M., Hänninen, J. & Mäkinen, K. (2019): Vad Har Strömmingen att berättä? Fisketidskrift för Finland 1/2019. (In Swedish).
  • Jari Hänninen (2018): Airisto – liettynyt helmemme. Aallonharjalla-blogi (In Finnish).
  • ​Mäkinen K. & Rajasilta, M. (2018): Parasiterande hakmaskar i strömming. Fisketidskrift för Finland 4/2018. (In Swedish).
  • Rajasilta, M. & Vuorinen, I. (2008): Suomen murtovesialueen eläinplankton -määritysopas. SEILI Archipelago Research Institute Publications 5. 66 s. ISBN 978-951-29-3829-2. Identification manual (In Finnish).
  • Rajasilta, M. & Kääriä, J. (1986): Silakan lisääntymisalueet Turun edustan merialueella: mädin esiintyminen ja kuolleisuus sekä kutupohjien laatu vuosina 1984 ja 1985 = The spawning grounds of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L) in the sea area of Turku: occurrence and mortality of the eggs and the quality of the bottoms in 1984 and 1985. Lounais-Suomen vesiensuojeluyhdistys r.y. julk., nr. 63, 83-107
  • Rajasilta, M. & Ranta-aho, K. (1981): Alustavia tuloksia silakan mätitiheydestä, mädin esiintymissyvyydestä ja kehityksestä pohjoisella Airistolla. Suomen Kalastuslehti, 8: 232–234. (In Finnish).

Posters, conference papers and abstracts (selected examples)

  • Vahteri, P. & Vuorinen, I. 2001. The crash in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L.) reproduction – a case study in the northern Airisto spawning grounds, Archipelago Sea S-W Finland. Baltic Sea Science Congress 2001, Abstract Volume. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Laine, P., Pajunen, I. & Soikkeli, M. 1997. Giant herring in the Archipelago Sea – a group of fast-growing cannibals. In: Andrushaitis A (Ed.). Proceedings of the 13th BMB Symposium, Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Latvia, pp 193–195.
  • Rajasilta, M., Kääriä, J. Laine, P., Pajunen, I. & Soikkeli, M. 1996. Is the spawning of the herring in the Northern Baltic influenced by mild winters? – Proceedings of the 13th Symposium of the Baltic Marine Biologists: 185-191.